Synaptic metabolism

Highly specialized synaptic metabolism depends not only on its specific anatomy but also on its main functions. In other words, we could say that the synapse has distinctive metabolic pathways that depend on the chemical composition of cellular microenvironments. This is related to localization and the particular characteristics of critical organelles such as neurotransmitter vesicles, synaptic mitochondria, cell membranes and receptors. Specific amino acids, proteins, lipids, regulation of calcium homeostasis, and energy metabolism including mitocondrial function are crucial elements that define possible synaptic metabolic pathways. 

The synapse is very rich in lipids that compose the vesicles where neurotransmitters are stored. Pre and post-synaptic membranes differ in lipid composition and include diverse intrinsic and extrinsic proteins. Glia is also very important to the regulation of glycolitic pathways, lactate and glutamate metabolism among other functions.

lipid_bilayerGreat variety of lipids

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Neuron-astrocyte communication

Although it has not been reported in detail in the literature, it would be tempting to define major synaptic metabolic pathways by the different synaptic anatomic sites. In particular, the metabolic pathways of amino acids, biogenic amines, lipids, purines, neuropeptides, synaptic receptors, as well as energy metabolism should be considered in detail. All of them are interconnected and compose what we could call the global “synaptic metabolism”.

In this section you will find information about how this synaptic metabolism could be defined and how it is affected by different neuropaediatric disorders including  inborn errors of metabolism.

24 posts published about Synaptic metabolism

The diseases of the synaptic vesicles open the way to a new group of neurometabolic diseases

The Inborn Errors of Metabolism (IEM) have normally been considered as the result of errors at the genetic level affecting the biochemical pathways of small molecules such as the neurotransmitters glycine, glutamate, GABA, biogenic amines, etc. The altered concentration of such molecules in the Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) have always been used as a diagnostic biomarker […]

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Synaptic metabolism course

A course about synaptic metabolism of the Recordati Rare Disease Foundation will be held in Barcelona, Spain, on November 16 – 18, 2017. Participants are expected to have prior knowledge about the field: practical experience with diagnosis treatment, and/or basic research is recommended. Participants are also expected to present a case report relevant to the theme […]

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Disruption of active zone affects synaptic vesicles only partially

The active zones are specific sites of presynaptic terminals where the docking and the release of synaptic vesicles occur. They are complex, organized protein structures that anchor synaptic vesicles to the plasma membrane. Once bound to the active zone and docked to the plasma membrane, synaptic vesicles can properly respond to the changes of action […]

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Adenosine receptors may help neuronal regeneration

A fundamental step in neuronal development is constituted by the axonal growth and the dendritic branching. Many intra- and extra-cellular signals regulate this process, indeed is very important that the growth of neuronal extremities follow a precise direction in order to reach their target cells. The distal tip of the axon is a specialized structure […]

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